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CARNEGIE INSTITUTION

OF

WASHINGTON

YEAR BOOK ISTo. 2 5

JULY 1, 1925, TO JUNE 30, 1926

WITH ADMINISTRATIVE REPORTS THROUGH DECEMBER 10, 1926

k&P

Published by the Carnegie Institution of Washington Washington, December 1926

PHESS OF GIBSON BROS., INC. WASHINGTON, D. C.

CONTENTS

PAGE.

Organization, Plan, and Scope ix

Articles of Incorporation x-xn

By-Laws of the Institution xm-xvi

Minutes of the Twenty-seventh Meeting of the Board of Trustees xvn-xx

Report of the President of the Institution 1-36

Bibliography of Publications relating to work of Investigators, Associates, and

Collaborators 28-36

Report of the Executive Committee 37-40

Aggregate Receipts and Disbursements Jfi

Report of Auditors and Financial Statement 41-4?

Reports on Investigations and Projects:

Department of Embryology 3-28

Department of Genetics 29-59

Geophysical Laboratory 61-86

Department of Historical Research 87-94

Department of Meridian Astrometry 95-102

Mount Wilson Observatory 103-138

Nutrition Laboratory 139-150

Laboratory for Plant Physiology 151-184

Department of Terrestrial Magnetism 185-235

Tortugas Laboratory 237-258

Other Investigations:

Archaeology :

Morley, Sylvanus G 259-286

Astronomy :

Leuschner, A. 0 287-290

Bibliography :

Garrison, Fielding H 291

Biology :

Castle, W. E 292-293

Harris, J. Arthur 293-304

Harvey, E. Newton 304-306

Mann, Albert 306-308

Morgan, T. H., A. H. Sturtevant, and C. B. Bridges 308-312

Schaeffer, Asa A 312-315

Torrey, Harry Beal 315

Botany :

Babcock, E. B 316-317

Cannon, W. A 317-325

Chemistry :

Noyes, Arthur A 326-330

Richards, Theodore W 330-332

Sherman, H. C 332-334

Ecology :

Clements, F. E 335-371

Geology :

Chamberlin, T. C 372-387

History of Science:

Sarton, George 388

Meteorology :

Bjerknes, V 389-390

Nutrition:

Osborne, Thomas B., and L. B. Mendel 391-397

Palaeography :

Lowe, E. A 398

IV CONTENTS

Other Investigations continued: page. Palaeontology :

Chaney, Ralph W 399-402

Du Toit, A. L 402-403

Merriam, John C 403-407

Wieland, G. R ' 407-408

Physics :

Barnett, S. J 409

Barus, Carl 409-410

Millikan, R. A 410-412

Nichols, Edward L 412-414

Seismology :

Advisory Committee 415-435

Index 436-451

John C. Mebriam, President

BOARD OF TRUSTEES

Elihu Root, Chairman

Chaeles D. Walcott, Vice-Chairman

W. Cameron Forbes, Secretary

George J. Baldwin Robert S. Brookings John J. Carty Whitefoord R. Cole W. Cameron Forbes Myron T. Herrick Herbert C. Hoover Cass Gilbert

Frederick H. Gillett Andrew W. Mellon Andrew J. Montague William W. Morrow James Parmelee Wm. Barclay Parsons Stewart Paton Henry S. Pritchett

Elihu Root Martin A. Ryerson Theobald Smith William Benson Storet Charles D. Walcott William H. Welch Henry White George W. Wickebsham

Executive Committee: Elihu Root, Chairman; John J. Carty, W. Cameron Forbes, John C. Merriam, Wm. Barclay Parsons, Stewart Paton, Henry S. Pritchett, Henry White.

Finance Committee: Henry S. Pritchett, Chairman; Wm. Barclay Parsons, George W. Wickersham.

Auditing Committee: R. S. Brookings, Chairman; Martin A. Ryerson, George W. Wickersham.

FORMER PRESIDENTS •Daniel Coit Gilman, 1902-04 *Robert Simpson Woodward, 1904-20

•Alexander Agassiz •John S. Billings •John L. Cadwalader *Cleveland H. Dodge •William E. Dodge

Charles P. Fenner

Simon Flexner •William N. Frew

Lyman J. Gage •Daniel C. Gilman •John Hay •Abram S. Hewitt •Henry L. Higginson •Ethan A. Hitchcock •Henry Hitchcock •William Wirt Howe

FORMER TRUSTEES

1904-05 *Charles L. Hutchinson 1902-24

1902-13 *Samuel P. Langley 1904-06

1903-14 *William Lindsay 1902-09

1903-23 *Henry Cabot Lodge 1914-24

1902-03 *Seth Low 1902-16

1914-24 *Wayne MacVeagh 1902-07

1910-14 *Darius O. Mills 1902-09

1902-15 *S. Weir Mitchell 1902-14

1902-12 George W. Pepper 1914-19

1902-08 *John C. Spooner 1902-07

1902-05 William H. Tapt 1906-15

1902-03 Henry P. Walcott 1910-24

1902-19 *Andrew D. White 1902-16

1902-09 *Edward D. White 1902-03

1902-02 *Robert S. Woodward 1905-24

1903-09 *Carroll D. Wright 1902-08

* Deceased

Besides the names enumerated above, the following were ex-officio members of the Board of Trustees under the original charter, from the date of organization until April 28, 1904: the President of the United States, the President of the Senate, the Speaker of the House of Representatives, the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, the President of the National Academy of Sciences.

STAFF OF INVESTIGATORS

Department of Embryology:

Established 1914; Franklin P. Mall, Director 1914-1917.

George L. Streeter, Director Carl G. Hartman Chester H. Heuser

Margaret R. Lewis Warren H. Lewis

Department of Genetics:

Station for Experimental Evolution, opened in 1904, was combined with Eugenics Record Office in 1921 to form Department of Genetics.

Charles B. Davenport, Director A. F. Blakeslee, Assistant Director H. H. Latjghlin, Assistant Director H. J. Banker A. M. Banta John Belling

A. H. Estabrook M. Demerec E. C. MacDowell C. W. Metz Oscar Riddle

Geophysical Laboratory:

Organised 1906, opened 1907.

Arthur L. Day, Director

L. H. Adams

Eugene T. Allen

N. L. Bowen

C. N. Fenner

R. E. Gibson

R. W. Goranson

J. W. Greig

S. B. Hendricks

F. C. Kracek

R. H. Lombard

H. E. Merwin

G. W. Moret Charles S. Piggot Eugene Posnjak H. S. Roberts E. S. Shepherd Robert B. Sosman George Tunell H. S. Washington Walter P. White Fred E. Wright R. W. G. Wtckopp E. G. Zies

Department of Historical Research:

Organized 1903; Andrew C. McLaughlin, Director 1903-1905.

J. Franklin Jameson, Director Edmund C. Burnett Frances G. Davenport Waldo G. Leland

Marguerite M. McKee David W. Parker Charles O. Paullin Leo F. Stock

Department of Meridian Astrometry:

Established 1907; Lewis Boss, Director 1907-1912.

Benjamin Boss, Director Harry Raymond

Sebastian Albrecht Arthur J. Roy

Sherwood B. Grant W. B. Varnum

Heroy Jenkins Ralph E. Wilson

Mount Wilson Observatory:

Established 1904; George E. Hale, Director 1904-1923.

George E. Hale, Honorary Director

Walter S. Adams, Director

F. H. Seares, Assistant Director

Alfred H. Joy, Secretary

A. S. King, Supt. Physical Laboratory

J. A. Anderson

Harold D. Babcock

Ferdinand Ellerman

Edwin P. Hubble

Milton C Humason

Paul W. Merrill Seth B. Nicholson Francis G. Pease Edison Pettit R. F. Sanford Sinclair Smith

GUSTAF StROMBERG

Charles E. St. John A. van Maanen

VI

STAFF OF INVESTIGATORS

VII

INVESTIGATORS— Continued

Nutrition Laboratory:

Organised 1907; opened 1908.

Francis G. Benedict, Director T. M. Carpenter

V. COROPATCHINSKT

Mart D. Finn

E. L. Fox E. S. Mills H. S. Palmer

Laboratory for Plant Physiology:

Desert Laboratory, opened in 1903, became headquarters of Department of Botanical Research in 1905. Name changed to Laboratory for Plant Physiology in 1923.

Daniel T. MacDougal, Director William Newton (Resigned) Forrest Shreve

H. A. Spoehr Godfrey Stkes

Department of Terrestrial Magnetism:

Organized 1904.

Louis A. Bauer, Director H. F. Johnston

J. A. Fleming, Assistant Director A. H. Kampe

J. P. Ault John Lindsay

R. T. Booth (Resigned) S. J. Mauchly

G. Breit W. C. Parkinson

J. E. I. Cairns W. J. Peters

C. R. DUVALL W. J. ROONEY

H. M. W. Edmonds J. E. Sanders jr.

C. C. Ennis H. V. Sverdrup

H. W. FlSK O. W. Torreson

O. H. Gish M. A. Tuve

R. H. Goddard G. R. Wait

J. B. Goldsmith W. F. Wallis

John W. Green F. W. Wood

Investigators at Tortugas Laboratory, Summer 1926:

Paul Bartsch, U. S. National Museum L. R. Blinks, Rockefeller Institute Paul S. Conger, Carnegie Institution of Washington W. H. Longley, Goucher College H. M. Miller jr., Washington University C. R. Shoemaker, U. S. National Museum

C. V. Taylor, Stanford University

W. R. Taylor, University of Pennsylvania

D. H. Tennent, Bryn Mawr College J. M. Valentine, Yale University Douglas M. Whitaker, Stanford University

Ecological Research:

Frederic E. Clements, Associate G. W. Goldsmith

H. M. Hall Frances L. Long

Middle American Archaeological Research:

Sylvanus G. Morley, Associate Earl H. Morris

O. G. Ricketson jr. Karl Ruppert

Physiological Chemistry:

T. B. Osborne, Research Associate (Connecticut Agric. Exper. Station)

L. B. Mendel, Research Associate (Yale University)

A. J. Wakeman C. S. Leavenworth Helen Cannon

H. B. VlCKEBY

VIII STAFF OF INVESTIGATORS

INVESTIGATORS— Continued

Biology:

T. H. Morgan, Research Associate C. B. Bridges

(Columbia University) A. H. Sturtevant

Fellows of Institution:

Samuel K. Allison, Geophysics Howard B. Andervont, Embryology

Other Investigators:

S. J. Barnett, Research Associate in Experimental Physics (Resigned)

Henry Bergen, Research Associate in Early English Literature

Ralph W. Chaney, Research Associate in Palaeobotany

Oliver P. Hay, Associate in Palaeontology (Retired)

Elias A. Lowe, Associate in Palaeography

Albert Mann, Research Associate in Biology

George Sarton, Associate in History of Science

Esther B. Van Deman, Associate in Roman Archaeology (To Jan. 1,^1926)

George R. Wieland, Associate in Palaeontology

Harry O. Wood, Research Associate in Seismology

Additional Research Associates connected with other Institutions:

E. B. Bab cock (University of California), Genetics

Carl Barus (Brown University), Physics

V. Bjerknes (Geofysiske Institut, Bergen, Norway), Meteorology

J. P. Buwalda (California Institute of Technology), Palaeontology

W. E. Castle (Harvard University), Biology

T. C. Chamberlin (University of Chicago), Geology

I. J. Cox (Northwestern University) Political Science

A. E. Douglass (University of Arizona), Ecology

J. Arthur Harris (University of Minnesota), Biology

E. Newton Harvey (Princeton University), Biology

J. H. Jeans (Royal Society of London), Astronomy

Waldemar Jochelson (American Museum of Natural History), Archaeology

Remington Kellogg (U. S. Biological Survey), Palaeontology

A. E. Kennelly (Harvard University), Terrestrial Magnetism

A. V. Kidder (Andover Academy), Archaeology

D. N. Lehmer (University of California), Mathematics

B. E. Livingston (Johns Hopkins University), Botany W. H. Longley (Goucher College), Biology

P. A. Martin (Stanford University), Political Science

A. A. Michelson (University of Chicago), Astronomy

R. A. Millikan (California Institute of Technology), Physics

Vladimir Moravek (University of Briinn), Botany

Frank Morley (Johns Hopkins University), Mathematics

E. L. Nichols (Cornell University), Physics

A. A. Noyes (California Institute of Technology), Chemistry

J. B. Overton (University of Wisconsin), Botany

T. W. Richards (Harvard University), Botany

Henry N. Russell (Princeton University), Astronomy

H. C. Sherman (Columbia University), Chemistry

J. H. C. Smith (Pomona College), Plant Physiology

Morris Steggerda (University of Illinois), Genetics

Chester Stock (California Institute of Technology), Palaeontology

D. H. Tennent (Bryn Mawr College), Biology

H. B. Torrey (Cornell University Medical College), Biology

J. E. Weaver (University of Nebraska),. Ecology

Lewis H. Weed (Johns Hopkins University), Anatomy

David White (National Academy of Sciences), Palaeontology

Clark Wissler (American Museum of Natural History), Archaeology

ORGANIZATION, PLAN AND SCOPE

The Carnegie Institution of Washington was founded by Mr. Andrew Carnegie, January 28, 1902, when he gave to a board of trustees an endow- ment of registered bonds of the par value of ten million dollars. To this fund an addition of two million dollars was made by Mr. Carnegie on December 10, 1907, and a further addition of ten million dollars was made by him January 19, 1911; so that the present endowment of the Institution has a par value of twenty-two million dollars. The Institution was origi- nally organized under the laws of the District of Columbia and incorporated as the Carnegie Institution, articles of incorporation having been executed on January 4, 1902. The Institution was reincorporated, however, by an act of the Congress of the United States, approved April 28, 1904, under the title of The Carnegie Institution of Washington. (See existing Articles of Incorporation on the following pages.)

Organization under the new Articles of Incorporation was effected May 18, 1904, and the Institution was placed under the control of a board of twenty-four trustees, all of whom had been members of the original corpora- tion. The trustees meet annually in December to consider the affairs of the Institution in general, the progress of work already undertaken, the initiation of new projects, and to make the necessary appropriations for the ensuing year. During the intervals between the meetings of the trustees the affairs of the Institution are conducted by an Executive Committee chosen by and from the Board of Trustees and acting through the President of the Institution as chief executive officer.

The Articles of Incorporation of the Institution declare in general "that the objects of the corporation shall be to encourage, in the broadest and most liberal manner, investigation, research, and discovery, and the application of knowledge to the improvement of mankind." Three principal agencies to forward these objects have been developed. The first of these involves the establishment of departments of research within the Institution itself, to attack larger problems requiring the collaboration of several investigators, special equipment, and continuous effort. The second provides meant whereby individuals may undertake and carry to completion investigations not less important but requiring less collaboration and less special equip- ment. The third agency, namely, a division devoted to editing and print- ing books, aims to provide adequate publication of the results of research coming from the first two agencies and to a limited extent also for worthy works not likely to be published under other auspices.

ARTICLES OF INCORPORATION

Public No. 260. An Act To incorporate the Carnegie Institution of Washington

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That the persons following, being persons who are now trustees of the Carnegie Institution, namely, Alexander Agassiz, John S. Billings, John L. Cadwalader, Cleveland H. Dodge, William N. Frew, Lyman J. Gage, Daniel C. Gilman, John Hay, Henry L. Higginson, William Wirt Howe, Charles L. Hutchinson, Samuel P. Langley, William Lindsay, Seth Low, Wayne MacVeagh, Darius O. Mills, S. Weir Mitchell, William W. Morrow, Ethan A. Hitchcock, Elihu Root, John C. Spooner, Andrew D. White, Charles D. Walcott, Carroll D. Wright, their associates and successors, duly chosen, are hereby incorporated and declared to be a body corporate by the name of the Carnegie Institution of Washington and by that name shall be known and have perpetual succession, with the powers, limitations, and restrictions herein contained.

Sec. 2. That the objects of the corporation shall be to encourage, in the broadest and most liberal manner, investigation, research, and discovery, and the application of knowledge to the improvement of mankind; and in particular

(a) To conduct, endow, and assist investigation in any department of science, literature, or art, and to this end to cooperate with governments, universities, colleges, technical schools, learned societies, and individuals.

(b) To appoint committees of experts to direct special lines of research.

(c) To publish and distribute documents.

(d) To conduct lectures, hold meetings and acquire and maintain a library.

(e) To purchase such property, real or personal, and construct such build- ing or buildings as may be necessary to carry on the work of the corporation.

(f) In general, to do and perform all things necessary to promote the objects of the institution, with full power, however, to the trustees herein- after appointed and their successors from time to time to modify the con- ditions and regulations under which the work shall be carried on, so as to secure the application of the funds in the manner best adapted to the con- ditions of the time, provided that the objects of the corporation shall at all times be among the foregoing or kindred thereto.

Sec. 3. That the direction and management of the affairs of the corpora- tion and the control and disposal of its property and funds shall be vested in a board of trustees, twenty-two in number, to be composed of the follow- ing individuals: Alexander Agassiz, John S. Billings, John L. Cadwalader, Cleveland H. Dodge, William N. Frew, Lyman J. Gage, Daniel C. Gilman, John Hay, Henry L. Higginson, William Wirt Howe, Charles L. Hutchinson, Samuel P. Langley, William Lindsay, Seth Low, Wayne MacVeagh, Darius 0. Mills, S. Weir Mitchell, William W. Morrow, Ethan A. Hitchcock, Elihu Root, John C. Spooner, Andrew D. White, Charles D. Walcott, Carroll D.

ARTICLES OF INCORPORATION XI

Wright, who shall constitute the first board of trustees. The board of trus- tees shall have power from time to time to increase its membership to not more than twenty-seven members. Vacancies occasioned by death, resigna- tion, or otherwise shall be filled by the remaining trustees in such manner as the by-laws shall prescribe; and the persons so elected shall thereupon become trustees and also members of the said corporation. The principal place of business of the said corporation shall be the city of Washington, in the District of Columbia.

Sec. 4. That such board of trustees shall be entitled to take, hold, and administer the securities, funds, and property so transferred by said Andrew Carnegie to the trustees of the Carnegie Institution and such other funds or property as may at any time be given, devised, or bequeathed to them, or to such corporation, for the purposes of the trust; and with full power from time to time to adopt a common seal, to appoint such officers, members of the board of trustees or otherwise, and such employees as may be deemed necessary in carrying on the business of the corporation, at such salaries or with such remuneration as they may deem proper; and with full power to adopt by-laws from time to time and such rules or regulations as may be necessary to secure the safe and convenient transaction of the business of the corporation; and with full power and discretion to deal with and expend the income of the corporation in such manner as in their judgment will best promote the objects herein set forth and in general to have and use all powers and authority necessary to promote such objects and carry out the purposes of the donor. The said trustees shall have further power from time to time to hold as investments the securities hereinabove referred to so transferred by Andrew Carnegie, and any property which has been or may be transferred to them or such corporation by Andrew Carnegie or by any other person, persons, or corporation, and to invest any sums or amounts from time to time in such securities and in such form and manner as are permitted to trustees or to charitable or literary corporations for investment, according to the laws of the States of New York, Pennsylvania, or Massachusetts, or in such securities as are authorized for investment by the said deed of trust so executed by Andrew Carnegie, or by any deed of gift or last will and testa- ment to be hereafter made or executed.

Sec. 5. That the said corporation may take and hold any additional dona- tions, grants, devises, or bequests which may be made in further support of the purposes of the said corporation, and may include in the expenses thereof the personal expenses which the trustees may incur in attending meetings or otherwise in carrying out the business of the trust, but the services of the trustees as such shall be gratuitous.

Sec. 6. That as soon as may be possible after the passage of this Act a meeting of the trustees hereinbefore named shall be called by Daniel C. Gil- man, John S. Billings, Charles D. Walcott, S. Weir Mitchell, John Hay, Elihu Root, and Carroll D. Wright, or any four of them, at the city of Wash- ington, in the District of Columbia, by notice served in person or by mail addressed to each trustee at his place of residence; and the said trustees, or a majority thereof, being assembled, shall organize and proceed to adopt by- laws, to elect officers and appoint committees, and generally to organize the said corporation; and said trustees herein named, on behalf of the corpora-

XII ARTICLES OF INCORPORATION

tion hereby incorporated, shall thereupon receive, take over, and enter into possession, custody, and management of all property, real or personal, of the corporation heretofore known as the Carnegie Institution, incorporated, as hereinbefore set forth under "An Act to establish a Code of Law for the District of Columbia, January fourth, nineteen hundred and two," and to all its rights, contracts, claims, and property of any kind or nature; and the several officers of such corporation, or any other person having charge of any of the securities, funds, real or personal, books or property thereof, shall, on demand, deliver the same to the said trustees appointed by this Act or to the persons appointed by them to receive the same; and the trustees of the existing corporation and the trustees herein named shall and may take such other steps as shall be necessary to carry out the purposes of this Act.

Sec. 7. That the rights of the creditors of the said existing corporation known as the Carnegie Institution shall not in any manner be impaired by the passage of this Act, or the transfer of the property hereinbefore men- tioned, nor shall any liability or obligation for the payment of any sums due or to become due, or any claim or demand, in any manner or for any cause existing against the said existing corporation, be released or impaired; but such corporation hereby incorporated is declared to succeed to the obliga- tions and liabilities and to be held liable to pay and discharge all of the debts, liabilities, and contracts of the said corporation so existing to the same effect as if such new corporation had itself incurred the obligation or liability to pay such debt or damages, and no such action or proceeding before any court or tribunal shall be deemed to have abated or been discontinued by reason of the passage of this Act.

Sec. 8. That Congress may from time to time alter, repeal, or modify this Act of incorporation, but no contract or individual right made or acquired shall thereby be divested or impaired.

Sec. 9. That this Act shall take effect immediately.

Approved, April 28, 1904.

BY-LAWS OF THE INSTITUTION Adopted December 13, 1904. Amended December 13, 1910, and December 13, 1912.

Article I.

THE TRUSTEES.

1. The Board of Trustees shall consist of twenty-four members, with power to increase its membership to not more than twenty-seven members. The Trustees shall hold office continuously and not for a stated term.

2. In case any Trustee shall fail to attend three successive annual meet- ings of the Board he shall thereupon cease to be a Trustee.

3. No Trustee shall receive any compensation for his services as such.

4. All vacancies in the Board of Trustees shall be filled by the Trustees by ballot. Sixty days prior to an annual or a special meeting of the Board, the President shall notify the Trustees by mail of the vacancies to be filled and each Trustee may submit nominations for such vacancies. A list of the persons so nominated, with the names of the proposers, shall be mailed to the Trustees thirty days before the meeting, and no other nominations shall be received at the meeting except with the unanimous consent of the Trustees present. Vacancies shall be filled from the persons thus nominated, but no person shall be declared elected unless he receives the votes of two-thirds of the Trustees present.

Article II.

1. The annual meeting of the Board of Trustees shall be held in the City of Washington, in the District of Columbia, on the first Friday following the second Thursday of December in each year.

2. Special meetings of the Board may be called by the Executive Com- mittee by notice served personally upon, or mailed to the usual address of, each Trustee twenty days prior to the meeting.

3. Special meetings shall, moreover, be called in the same manner by the Chairman upon the written request of seven members of the Board.

Article III.

OFFICERS OF THE BOARD.

1. The officers of the Board shall be a Chairman of the Board, a Vice- Chairman, and a Secretary, who shall be elected by the Trustees, from the members of the Board, by ballot to serve for a term of three years. All vacancies shall be filled by the Board for the unexpired term; provided, how- ever, that the Executive Committee shall have power to fill a vacancy in the office of Secretary to serve until the next meeting of the Board of Trustees.

XIV BY-LAWS OF THE INSTITUTION

2. The Chairman shall preside at all meetings and shall have the usual powers of a presiding officer.

3. The Vice-Chairman, in the absence or disability of the Chairman, shall perform his duties.

4. The Secretary shall issue notices of meetings of the Board, record its transactions, and conduct that part of the correspondence relating to the Board and to his duties. He shall execute all deeds, contracts or other instruments on behalf of the corporation, when duly authorized.

Article IV.

EXECUTIVE ADMINISTRATION.

The President.

1. There shall be a President who shall be elected by ballot by, and hold office during the pleasure of, the Board, who shall be the chief executive officer of the Institution. The President, subject to the control of the Board and the Executive Committee, shall have general charge of all matters of administration and supervision of all arrangements for research and other work undertaken by the Institution or with its funds. He shall devote his entire time to the affairs of the Institution. He shall prepare and submit to the Board of Trustees and to the Executive Committee plans and sug- gestions for the work of the Institution, shall conduct its general corre- spondence and the correspondence with applicants for grants and with the special advisers of the Committee, and shall present his recommendations in each case to the Executive Committee for decision. All proposals and requests for grants shall be referred to the President for consideration and report. He shall have power to remove and appoint subordinate employees and shall be ex officio a member of the Executive Committee.

2. He shall be the legal custodian of the seal and of all property of the Institution whose custody is not otherwise provided for. He shall affix the seal of the corporation whenever authorized to do so by the Board of Trus- tees or by the Executive Committee or by the Finance Committee. He shall be responsible for the expenditure and disbursement of all funds of the Institution in accordance with the directions of the Board and of the Executive Committee, and shall keep accurate accounts of all receipts and disbursements. He shall submit to the Board of Trustees at least one month before its annual meeting in December a written report of the opera- tions and business of the Institution for the preceding fiscal year with his recommendations for work and appropriations for the succeeding fiscal year, which shall be forthwith transmitted to each member of the Board.

3. He shall attend all meetings of the Board of Trustees.

Article V.

COMMITTEES.

1. There shall be the following standing Committees, viz., an Executive Committee, a Finance Committee, and an Auditing Committee.

BY-LAWS OF THE INSTITUTION XV

2. The Executive Committee shall consist of the Chairman and Secretary of the Board of Trustees and the President of the Institution ex officio and, in addition, five trustees to be elected by the Board by ballot for a term of three years, who shall be eligible for re-election. Any member elected to fill a vacancy shall serve for the remainder of his predecessor's term : Provided, however, that of the Executive Committee first elected after the adoption of these by-laws two shall serve for one year, two shall serve for two years, and one shall serve for three years; and such Committee shall determine their respective terms by lot.

3. The Executive Committee shall, when the Board is not in session and has not given specific directions, have general control of the administration of the affairs of the corporation and general supervision of all arrangements for administration, research, and other matters undertaken or promoted by the Institution; shall appoint advisory committees for specific duties; shall determine all payments and salaries; and keep a written record of all trans- actions and expenditures and submit the same to the Board of Trustees at each meeting, and it shall also submit to the Board of Trustees a printed or typewritten report of each of its meetings, and at the annual meeting shall submit to the Board a report for publication.

4. The Executive Committee shall have general charge and control of all appropriations made by the Board.

5. The Finance Committee shall consist of three members to be elected by the Board of Trustees by ballot for a term of three years.

6. The Finance Committee shall have custody of the securities of the cor- poration and general charge of its investments and invested funds, and shall care for and dispose of the same subject to the directions of the Board of Trustees. It shall consider and recommend to the Board from time to time such measures as in its opinion will promote the financial interests of the Institution, and shall make a report at each meeting of the Board.

7. The Auditing Committee shall consist of three members to be elected by the Board of Trustees by ballot for a term of three years.

8. The Auditing Committee shall, before each annual meeting of the Board of Trustees, examine the accounts of business transacted under the Finance Committee and the Executive Committee. They may avail them- selves at will of the services and examination of the Auditor appointed by the Board of Trustees. They shall report to the Board upon the collection of moneys to which the Institution is entitled, upon the investment and reinvestment of principal, upon the conformity of expenditures to appro- priations, and upon the system of bookkeeping, the sufficiency of the accounts, and the safety and economy of the business methods and safe- guards employed.

9. All vacancies occurring in the Executive Committee and the Finance Committee shall be filled by the Trustees at the next regular meeting. In case of vacancy in the Finance Committee or the Auditing Committee, upon request of the remaining members of such committee, the Executive Com- mittee may fill such vacancy by appointment until the next meeting of the Board of Trustees.

10. The terms of all officers and of all members of committees shall con- tinue until their successors are elected or appointed.

XVI BY-LAWS OF THE INSTITUTION

Article VI.

FINANCIAL ADMINISTRATION.

1. No expenditure shall be authorized or made except in pursuance of a previous appropriation by the Board of Trustees.

2. The fiscal year of the Institution shall commence on the first day of November in each year.

3. The Executive Committee, at least one month prior to the annual meeting in each year, shall cause the accounts of the Institution to be audited by a skilled accountant, to be appointed by the Board of Trustees, and shall submit to the annual meeting of the Board a full statement of the finances and work of the Institution and a detailed estimate of the expenditures for the succeeding year.

4. The Board of Trustees, at the annual meeting in each year, shall make general appropriations for the ensuing fiscal year; but nothing contained herein shall prevent the Board of Trustees from making special appropria- tions at any meeting.

5. The securities of the Institution and evidences of property, and funds invested and to be invested, shall be deposited in such safe depository or in the custody of such trust company and under such safeguards as the Trus- tees and Finance Committee shall designate; and the income available for expenditure of the Institution shall be deposited in such banks or deposi- tories as may from time to time be designated by the Executive Committee.

6. Any trust company entrusted with the custody of securities by the Finance Committee may, by resolution of the Board of Trustees, be made Fiscal Agent of the Institution, upon an agreed compensation, for the trans- action of the business coming within the authority of the Finance Committee.

Article VII.

AMENDMENT OP BY-LAWS.

1. These by-laws may be amended at any annual or special meeting of the Board of Trustees by a two-thirds vote of the members present, provided written notice of the proposed amendment shall have been served personally upon, or mailed to the usual address of, each member of the Board twenty days prior to the meeting.

MINUTES

OF THE

TWENTY-SEVENTH MEETING OF THE BOARD OF

TRUSTEES

ABSTRACT OF MINUTES OF THE TWENTY-SEVENTH MEETING OF BOARD OF TRUSTEES

The meeting was held in Washington in the Board Room of the Administration Building, on Friday, December 10, 1926, and was called to order at 10 a. m. by the Chairman, Mr. Root.

Upon roll-call the following Trustees responded: Robert S. Brookings, Cass Gilbert, Frederick H. Gillett, Herbert Hoover, William W. Morrow, James Parmelee, Wm. Barclay Parsons, Stewart Paton, Henry S. Pritchett, Elihu Root, Martin A. Ryerson, Theobald Smith, William Benson Storey, Charles D. Walcott, William H. Welch, Henry White, George W. Wicker- sham. The President of the Institution, John C. Merriam, was also present.

The minutes of the twenty-sixth meeting were approved as printed and submitted to the members of the Board.

Reports of the President, the Executive Committee, the Auditor, the Finance Committee, the Auditing Committee, and of Directors of Departments and Research Associates of the Institution were presented and considered.

The following appropriations for the year 1927 were author- ized:

Insurance Fund $3 ,600

Pension Fund 40,000

Administration 67 , 100

Publication (including Division of Publications) 96,230

Departments and Divisions of Research 1,092,916

Minor Grants 159,200

Repairs to Non-Magnetic Yacht " Carnegie " 66 ,650

Index Medicus 10,000

General Contingent Fund 45 ,000

Special Emergency Reserve Fund 50,000

1,630,696

John J. Carty and Henry White were reelected as members of the Executive Committee for a term of three years. The meeting adjourned at 11:30 a. m.

REPORT OF THE PRESIDENT

OF THE

CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON

FOE THE YEAR ENDING OCTOBER 31, 1926

REPORT OF THE PRESIDENT

OF THE

CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON.

In conformity with Article IV, section 2, of the By-Laws of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, the President has the honor to submit the following report on the work of the Institution for the fiscal year ending October 31, 1926, together with a statement of provisional recommendations of appropriations for the year beginning January 1, 1927.

Cleveland Hoadley Dodge was elected to the Board of Trustees one

year after organization of the Carnegie Institution of Washington.

He filled the vacancy created by death of his father,

CleD^e H' William Earl Dodge. Mr. Dodge had intense interest in the problems of the Institution, and was always a vigorous and faithful worker attempting to develop the best and most effective program for research. He served as a member of the Board for twenty years, until ill health made it impossible for him to attend the meetings.

Mr. Dodge succeeded Charles D. Walcott as Secretary of the Board of Trustees in December 1905. He continued as Secretary, and as a member of the Executive Committee, until December 1923. In 1914 he was made Chairman of the Finance Committee of the Institution, a position to which he brought a wealth of special know- ledge and most conscientious service. His contribution was of much importance in establishing a sound system for conduct of the financial program of the Institution.

The wide interests which Mr. Dodge had in human affairs gave him an extremely important point of view relative to significance of work of the Institution in terms of human interest and need. Mr. Dodge was always especially sympathetic with the enterprises of the Institu- tion which concerned humanistic or humanitarian problems, but this desire to see the human side of research strongly expressed only deepened his appreciation of the value of fundamental research in the physical and biological sciences. Mr. Dodge was always greatly interested in cooperative research projects within the Institution. He gave close attention to work of the Department of Genetics by reason of its position at the point of contact between fundamental science and

CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON

special problems concerning man. He contributed much in time and financial support to development of studies in genetics and eugenics. The high ideals which Mr. Dodge held regarding significance of research, standards of attainment, and the meaning of human responsi- bility, together with his wide knowledge of men and affairs, made his sympathetic interest in the work of the Institution an invaluable asset during the period of his service and as a member of the Board. The contribution which he made toward strengthening the position of the Institution, and helping to make more effective the peculiar kind of effort to which it is dedicated, will always remain an outstanding example of constructive service.

During the past year contributions amounting to more than $70,000

have been received by the Institution for support of specific researches.

__ These investigations range from fundamental studies

Gifts

in physics and chemistry to application of biology in study of problems in human heredity. They have been conducted in connection with the regular program of departments and divisions of the Institution. The researches have brought relatively large return in results, as all overhead expense, including organization, salaries and equipment, has been provided by the Institution. The financial support for these investigations has gone directly to the special expenses required for study of selected problems, the work being conducted by leading investigators operating under exceptionally favorable conditions. By this means it has been possible to make considerable saving of time and money, which would have been required in setting up new and independent research programs.

In the past year we have initiated a plan for sending to Trustees

and to Directors of Departments from time to time brief statements

..,.„ . covering discoveries or advances of research in

1926 Year Book &

and Publication our program. In the coming year this relation may

ep0 help not merely to bring about a better touch with

some of the most productive researches, but it will indicate in a

manner the wealth of interesting material that appears in the Year

Book reports from the departments.

The Year Book of 1926 includes an exceedingly interesting statement of progress in all of our departments of investigation. Summaries of results included in the departmental reports present a concise record of achievement. The contributions discussed extend through the whole range of research progress reaching from development of theory to the building of new instruments upon the basis of scientific formulae. A large portion of the work is necessarily and naturally the accumu-

REPORT OF THE PRESIDENT, 1926

lation of data from observational work. It is, however, true that the greater part of the observational data represents the product of care- fully planned excursions into the unknown, the work having been carried out with that openness of mind which alone makes possible accumulation of well organized and thoroughly interpreted data.

In addition to the Year Book report, covering a general statement of our research results, it is important to remember that the list of publications issued by the Carnegie Institution, presented on page 21, and the bibliography of contributions, on page 23, represent the prin- cipal means by which full report has been made of the results of our work. Catalogues are necessarily the simplest form of statement that can be made regarding special problems, and these lists alone convey a wealth of information as to what has been accomplished during the year.

Advances of It must always be with hesitation that one attempts

Research ^0 make even the briefest note regarding exceptional

results of work during the past year. In every department of the

Institution discoveries have been made which should have special

mention in any consideration of advance in science.

The Department of Embryology has studied with extreme care and has presented a monographic publication on the Miller ovum, the youngest human embryo thus far described, and a specimen which contributes much to understanding of the course of human develop- ment. In other direction, this Department has made significant progress in study of the transformation of the white blood cells, which has led to discoveries concerning the nature and origin of certain types of malignant tumors.

In the Department of Genetics, there has been advance in study of many aspects of the problem of heredity, both those which concern the nature of the materials furnishing the carriers through which qual- ities of organisms are transmitted and those relating to possible influences, internal and external, which may produce modification of the sequence in heredity. The Department has also made significant progress in that division of its work concerning processes controlling development of the individual. In these investigations it has become increasingly clear that the endocrine glands are among the most im- portant agents guiding development. Dr. Riddle's studies of the high and low thyroid strains of pigeons represent one of the most inter- esting contributions in this field.

Closely related to the studies of the Department of Genetics, and also not far removed from certain of the physiological studies under-

CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON

taken in the field of embryology, lie some of the most important re- searches of the department